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Tuberculosis; Types,Causes And Complications

Tuberculosis; Types,Causes And Complications.

3D illustration of the pulmonary tuberculosis
3D illustration of the pulmonary tuberculosis

Tuberculosis is a disease originated from a bacteria known as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (TB) is a lethal infectious disease that mainly affects the lungs. The bacteria that cause tuberculosis can be transmitted from one person to another through tiny droplets released into the air via coughs and sneezes.
Many strains of tuberculosis are drug resistant.People with active tuberculosis must take several types of medications for many months to eradicate the infection and prevent development of antibiotic resistance.

  • Types Of Tuberculosis.
  • LATENT  OR INACTIVE TB.
    In this condition, you have a TB infection, but the bacteria remain in your body in an inactive state and cause no symptoms. Latent TB, also called inactive TB or TB infection, isn’t contagious. It can turn into active TB, so treatment is important for the person with latent TB and to help control the spread of TB in general.
  • ACTIVE TB. This condition makes you sick and can spread to others. It can occur in the first few weeks after infection with the TB bacteria, or it might occur years later.

CAUSES OF TUBERCULOSIS.
Tuberculosis is caused by bacteria that spread from person to person through microscopic droplets released into the air. This can happen when someone with the untreated, active form of tuberculosis coughs, speaks, sneezes, spits, laughs or sings.

RISK FACTORS OF TUBERCULOSIS.
Anyone can get tuberculosis, but certain factors can increase your risk of the disease. These factors include:

Weakened immune system
A healthy immune system often successfully fights TB bacteria, but your body can’t mount an effective defense if your resistance is low. A number of diseases and medications can weaken your immune system, including:

  1. HIV/AIDS
  2. Diabetes
  3. End-stage kidney diseasese
  4. Certain cancers
  5. Cancer treatment, such as chemotherapy
  6. Drugs to prevent rejection of transplanted organs
  7. Some drugs used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn’s disease and psoriasis
  • SYMPTOMS OF TUBERCULOSIS
  • Malnutrition
  • Coughing that lasts three or more weeks
  • Coughing with blood
  • Chest pain, or pain with breathing or coughing
  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Night sweats
  • Chills
  • Lossof appetite

Tuberculosis can also affect other parts of your body, including your kidneys, spine or brain. When TB occurs outside your lungs, signs and symptoms vary according to the organs involved. For example, tuberculosis of the spine may give you back pain, and tuberculosis in your kidneys might cause blood in your urine.

  • COMPLICATIONS OF TUBERCULOSIS.

Without treatment, tuberculosis can be fatal. Untreated active disease typically affects your lungs, but it can spread to other parts of the body through your bloodstream. Examples of tuberculosis complications include:

  • Spinal pain. Back pain and stiffness are common complications of tuberculosis.
  • Joint damage. Tuberculous arthritis usually affects the hips and knees.
  • Swelling of the membranes that cover your brain (meningitis). This can cause a lasting or intermittent headache that occurs for weeks.
  • Mental changes also are possible.
    Liver or kidney problems. Your liver and kidneys help filter waste and impurities from your bloodstream. These functions become impaired if the liver or kidneys are affected by tuberculosis.
  • Heart disorders. Rarely, tuberculosis can infect the tissues that surround your heart, causing inflammation and fluid collections that may interfere with your heart’s ability to pump effectively. This condition, called cardiac tamponade, can be fatal.
Lung Infected With The Tuberculosis